Skill 10 of 11
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Fundamental forces

After centuries of research into known forces and search after new ones, people have come to realise that all forces we know of are “versions” of just four fundamental forces:[1,2]

Fundamental forces
Gravity3Mass attracting mass
Electromagnetic force2Electric/magnetic repulsion and attraction
Strong nuclear force1Holds an atom’s nucleus together
Weak nuclear forceCauses eventual breakdown of atoms (decay)

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  1. Sears and Zemansky’s Univesity Physics with Modern Physics’ (book), Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, Pearson Education, 13th ed., 2012
  2. The 4 Fundamental Forces of Physics’ (web page), Andrew Zimmerman Jones, ThoughtCo., 2019, (accessed Sep. 27th, 2019)
  3. What is the Theory of Everything?’ (web page), Adam Mann,, 2019, (accessed Sep. 27th, 2019)