Sine & cosine
An airplane taking off needs a horizontal force about 5 times larger than its vertical lift force.1 We can write that as: $F_x=5F_y$. This is regardless of airplane size. Both light private jets and heavy jumbo jets must achieve this.
- ‘How Much Does The Average Passenger Plane Angle Up During Take Off?’ (web page), Anil Polat, foXnoMad, 2018, www.foxnomad.com/2018/08/15/how-much-does-the-average-passenger-plane-angle-up-during-take-off (accessed Oct. 9th, 2019)
- ‘The typical takeoff and climb angles of all Boeing planes’ (web page), Devesh Agarwal, Bangalore Aviation, 2009, www.bangaloreaviation.com/2009/05/typical-takeoff-and-climb-angles-of-all.html (accessed Oct. 9th, 2019)
- ‘Online Etymology Dictionary’ (dictionary), Douglas Harper, www.etymonline.com
- ‘Sears and Zemansky’s Univesity Physics with Modern Physics’ (book), Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, Pearson Education, 13th ed., 2012
- ‘A History of Mathematical Notations (Dover Books on Mathematics)’ (book), Florian Cajori, Dover Publications, 1st ed., 2011, www.amazon.com/dp/0486677664, ISBN 9780486677668
- ‘The Words of Mathematics: An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English’ (book), Steven Schwartzman, The Mathematical Association of America, 1994, www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0883855119, ISBN 978-0883855119