Sir Isaac Newton
English (1643-1727) physicist and mathematician. Born in Woolsthorpe, England on Dec. 25th;[1,2] buried in Westminster Abbey. Knighted to the title of ‘Sir‘ by the Queen of the United Kingdom in 1705.
Newton was one of the forefathers of the scientific revolution, and founded the scientific method, a precise methodology for how to perform scientific research, which we use today all over the world.  In general, Newton acknowledged that there is an endless amount of knowledge we do not yet have:
What we know is a drop, what don’t know is an oceanSir Isaac Newton
and he credited his predecessors, among which he was fascinated by René Descartes in particular.
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.Sir Isaac Newton
He changed the scientific world by discovering several laws of nature that are essential to modern science and are used routinely in today’s engineering. He is most famous for
- his laws of motion, usually simply referred to as Newton’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd law. Other laws have also been named in his honour, such as
- Newton’s law of cooling and
- Newton’s law of gravity. Supposedly, his law of gravity was inspired by a falling apple from an apple tree at his farm in his hometown.
In 1686, Newton published his ‘Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)‘[1,2] (often simply called his ‘Principia‘), possibly the ‘single most influential book on physics‘, where many of his laws of nature were presented.
Also, Newton worked in the field of optics, light and colours as well as with the development of calculus (differentiation and integration) in mathematics. In fact, Newton developed calculus at the same time as but independently from Gottfried Leibniz, which brought a dispute of who should be credited.
Later in his life, Newton became master of England’s Royal Mint that was authorised for the manufacturing of coins for the UK.
- ‘Isaac Newton Biography’ (web page), Biography.com, A&E Television Networks, 2019, www.biography.com/scientist/isaac-newton (accessed Jan. 21st, 2020)
- ‘Isaac Newton’ (web page), History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2019, www.history.com/topics/inventions/isaac-newton (accessed Jan. 22st, 2020)
- ‘Sir Isaac Newton’ (painting), Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1689, www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey_Kneller (accessed Jan. 21st, 2020)