Euclid of Alexandria
He wrote many works about mathematics, with the one called ‘The Elements’ being the most famous work about geometry ever written. This thousands-of-years old work, consisting of 13 books or volumes, has laid the foundation of all future Western mathematics – even modern mathematics of present time – that all has been ‘either developing his ideas or challenging them’, and it has been called a ‘perfect example of correct reasoning’.
With ‘The Elements’ Euclid, as one of the first, collected and organised much of the geometric knowledge at the time (including the works of Pythagoras) 2 into one work with exhaustive proofs. It starts from the very beginning with fundamental definitions (such as ‘a point is that which has no part’) or postulates (such as ‘[it is possible] to draw a straight line from any point to any point’) that are assumed true, as well as axioms that are considered fundamental truths (such as ‘the whole is greater than the part’) etc. and builds all geometrical knowledge on top of that.
Euclid taught at his own school in Alexandria[1,3] and was probably himself taught by Plato. Among other large achievements, he was the first to prove that there exist infinitely many prime numbers.
- ‘Euclid of Alexandria’ (web page), J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson, University of St Andrews, Scotland, 1999, mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Euclid.html (accessed Mar. 13th, 2020)
- ‘Euclid biography’ (web page), Tejvan Pettinger, Biography Online, Oxford, 2018, www.biographyonline.net/scientists/euclid.html (accessed Mar. 13th, 2020)
- ‘Euclid of Alexandria and His Contributions to Geometry’ (web page), Deb Russell, ThoughtCo, 2019, www.thoughtco.com/euclid-of-alexandria-biography-2312396 (accessed Mar. 13th, 2020)
- ‘Euclid of Alexandria – The Father of Geometry’ (web page), The Story of Mathematics, 2013, www.storyofmathematics.com/hellenistic_euclid.html (accessed Mar. 13th, 2020)
- ‘Euclid’ (encyclopedia), N. S. Palmer, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2015, www.ancient.eu/Euclid/ (accessed Jan. 30st, 2020)
- ‘Euclid’ (encyclopedia), Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclid (accessed Mar. 13th, 2020)