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Resource: The four basic operations

The four basic arithmetic operations with official symbols and terms:[1,2,3,4]

Addition
$$a$$$$+$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
AddendPlusAddendSum1
Subtraction[6]
$$a$$$$-$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
Minuend3MinusSubtrahend2Difference
Multiplication[7]
$$a$$$$\cdot$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
$$a$$$$\times$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
$$a$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
$$a$$$$*$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
Factor4 or
multiplicand
TimesFactor or
multiplier
Product
Division[9]
$$a$$$$/$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
$$a$$$\div$ 7$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
$$a$$$$:$$$$b$$$$=$$$$c$$
Dividend6 or numerator'Divided by'
or 'per'
Divisor or denominatorQuotient5 or
fraction

Note the possibility of skipping the multiplication sign completely. Also note the possibility of replacing the dots in the $\div$ symbol for division with the numbers themselves, one being above and the other below the horizontal line. That notation-style is typically called a ‘fraction‘, although all divisions are fractions.

When performing these operations, prioritise them according to the so-called PEMDAS:

Order or operations (PEMDAS)[10]
First do...Parentheses
Then do...Exponents (powers)
Then do...Multiplications
as well as...Divisions
And finally do...Additions
as well as...Subtractions

References:

  1. Basic Operations’ (web page), Jetser Carasco, Basic Mathematics, 2008, www.basic-mathematics.com/basic-operations.html (accessed Aug. 8th, 2019)
  2. The Four Basic Mathematical Operations’ (web page), Universal Class, 2002, www.universalclass.com/articles/math/pre-algebra/the-four-basic-mathematical-operations.htm (accessed Aug. 8th, 2019)
  3. Teaching Addition, Subtraction, and Place Value’ (book), Crown, Numeracy Professional Development Projects, New Zealand Minstry of Education, 2008, nzmaths.co.nz/numeracy-development-projects-books, ISBN 0-7903-18776
  4. Teaching Multiplication and Division, revised edition’ (book), Crown, Numeracy Professional Development Projects, New Zealand Minstry of Education, 2008, nzmaths.co.nz/numeracy-development-projects-books, ISBN 978-0-7903-1872-1

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